The fifth summer school was again, with 22 participants from five countries (Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, Uganda and Zimbabwe)[1] and 6 resource persons from Kenya, Tanzania, the Netherlands and the United States, successfully held at the Tropical Pesticides Research Institute (TPRI), Arusha, Tanzania from the 12th to the 15th of October 2006. The course had three distinct activities:

q      Day I: Cyberchemistry: Sharing Instrumentation Globally

q      Day II: Pesticide Registrars’ Workshop

q      Day III: Field Trip  to Ngarenanyuki

q      Day IV: The use of multivariate techniques for analyzing ecological and ecotoxicological data


Cyberchemistry: Sharing Instrumentation Globally

The day-long course, from 8.30 pm to 5 pm, was offered as follows:

1. Introduction to Pesticides in East Africa
(M. Kishimba)


2. Introduction to GCMS use in Environmental Sampling
(A. Fitch)


3. Sample extraction and preparation
(W. Mavura)


4. Issues related to international sample transport
(A. Fitch)


5. Log on software, control of the GCMS; data transfer
(A. Fitch)


6. Data Analysis

(A. Fitch)


7. Mapping of Data

(D. Goldblatt)


8. The Future of the Port al and Discussion

(A. Fitch)


Pesticide Registrars’ Course

In this day-long course, the ANCAP summers school participants joined the 11 registrars of pesticides from eight countries who were being lectured by resource persons from five countries: Tanzania, South Africa, Costa Rica, Sweden and the UK. The participants were lectured on the following topics:

1.     Review of health hazards associated with pesticides,

2.     Surveillance for health effects of pesticides,

3.     Country presentations on Situation Analysis,

4.     The pesticide label as a risk communication tool

5.     Trade and pesticide registration

6.     Integrated Pest Management and Pesticide Reduction policies

7.     Toxicological exercise

8.     Pesticide Policy

9.     Review of state of with implementation / anticipated obstacles relating to:

PIC / Rotterdam Convention

FAO Code of Conduct


POPs / Stockholm Convention


Others (SAICM, etc.)


Field Trip to Ngarenanyuki

On day three, the summer school participants again joined the pesticide registrars in a field trip to an area which uses pesticides intensively to observe first hand what happens in the field and for discussions with farmers.


The use of multivariate techniques for analyzing ecological and ecotoxicological data

This course, which was kindly offered free of charge by a member of SETAC Europe, Dr. Paul J. van den Brink of Alterra and Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands, proved to be very helpful to participants. Its objective was to give an introduction into multivariate techniques and their use for analyzing ecotoxicological data and in risk assessment. This was be done by providing theoretical background in the morning and deal with examples from participants in the afternoon.


The contents of the course are summarized in its abstract:

In ecology, multivariate techniques have already been used for a long time to analyse the relation between communities and their environment. The advantage of multivariate methods over univariate methods is that they use and summarise all information on the measured endpoints simultaneously, and are able to evaluate the relation between environmental factors and these endpoints. In this course first an introduction to multivariate techniques belonging to ordination will be given. The applicability of ordination techniques for the analysis of ecotoxicological data sets will be demonstrated using example data sets, including the influence of endosulfan on the macroinvertebrate community of a river and the PCB dynamics in the blood of penguins. The course will end with a detailed explanation of the Principal Response Curves method, a method especially designed to analyse community level data from microcosm and mesocosm experiments. The method will be explained by the use of many examples and a hands-on presentation on how this analysis can be performed in the CANOCO for Windows package will be provided. The course, however, will focus on the methods used (which are also available in other packages) and not on the CANOCO programme itself.


The core participants of the School are listed below:


  1. Dr. Thomas Kinyanjui            Kenya
  2. Dr. Treza Akenga                   Kenya
  3. Dr. Joseph Mwaniki               Kenya
  4. Dr. Chrispine Kowenje           Kenya
  5. Mr. Edward Mubiru               Uganda
  6. Mr. Kenneth Arinaitwe          Uganda
  7. Mr. Justus Kwetegyeka         Uganda
  8. Mr. Christopher Adaku          Uganda
  9. Mr. John Marco                     Tanzania
  10. Mr. James Tano                      Tanzania
  11. Mr. Fidel Kessy                     Tanzania
  12. Ms Mary Meela                     Tanzania
  13. Mr. Vincent Madadi               Kenya
  14. Ms Deborah Abongo              Kenya
  15. Ms. Judith Jiri                        Zimbabwe
  16. Ms Norah Basopo                  Zimabwe
  17. Ms. Eltohami  Marwa            Sudan
  18. Mr Ammar Sorag                    Sudan
  19. Ms Veronica Muinde              Kenya
  20. Mr. Vincent Madadi               Kenya
  21. Mr.Aboubaker Morgan          Sudan
  22. Dr. Aviti Mmochi                   Tanzania


Resource Persons

  1. Prof.. Ward Mavura                Kenya
  2. Ms. Alice Muriithi                 Kenya
  3. Dr. Paul van den Brink           The Netherlands
  4. Mr. David Goldblatt               USA
  5. Prof. Alanah Fitch                  USA
  6. Prof. Michael Kishimba          Tanzania


[1] Ethiopia did not send a participants although all member countries were invited to send two participants on ANCAP sponsorship